Inside Hinduism there are two schools of philosophy which attentively attend to the dilemma of human bondage. These are these who subscribe to the theories of the Upanisads and the followers of the Yogasutras. The human bondage referred to is a confinement to the human situation and the chains of consciousness. According to the Upanisadic literature, karma ties a single to Samsara, although in the Yogasutras cittavrtti’s bind a single to prakrti. Consequentially, moksa (liberation) and its specifications are conceived of differently as properly.
The Upanisads and other sramana philosophies placed a new emphasis upon bondage in Samsara. External ritual action (karma) could now be internalized so a particular person could escape the trappings of a worldly and societal way of life. Society and its forced continuation of external karma creates a self-notion and ego (ahamkara), which reinforces the illusion of duality. To withdraw to the wilderness removes these troubles, providing time and space to comprehend the deepest jnana, that the private atman and universal Brahman are identical. The recognition of non-duality leads to a release from the cycle of death and rebirth. Right here, moksa is liberation from Samsara.
Patanjali’s Yogasutras have been a codification of pre-current concepts primarily based on the atheistic, metaphysical philosophy of the Sankhya college. This college of “enumeration” dualistically classifies two constituents of reality. Purusha (pure consciousness) and prakrti (the material globe). A student of the Yogasutras also renounces society due to its function in the creation of samskaras (mental formations). These samskaras are karmic seeds, top to karmic action which continue the samsaric bondage of the thoughts to prakrti. To cease creating mental formations is to cease cittavrtti, or the turning of the thoughts. This is completed via the practice of Yoga, which is to withdraw the senses and yoke oneself to purusha. Sooner or later the practitioner pierces via the decreasing materiality of prakrti and ahamkara and completely establishes himself as the witness or observer. This witnessing is the pure consciousness of purusha, a comprehensive shift and liberation from the material globe into moksa.
The Upanisadic thinkers took a non-dual stance, believing atman and Brahman, or every single soul and god, are a single. The students of the Yogasutras felt that consciousness and physicality have been fundamentally various. Respectively, to recognize and establish oneself as Brahman or purusha is moksa, or liberation from the chains of human bondage.